Definition of Myth
Historically, myth is supposed to be the first form of culture. The general nature of the myth is that it implies the unconscious meaning twinning person with powers of immediate being, whether it is the nature of being or society. If the myth serves as the only form of culture, it is twinning leads to the fact that people cannot distinguish between the meaning of the natural properties and semantic (associative) relationship of cause and effect. Everything is animated, and the nature of the world appears in the form of threatening, but still person related mythological creatures, i.e. demons and gods. In other words, myth is supposed to be the creation of the collective imagination of public and individual imagination, reflecting the generalized reality in the form of sensory-specific personifications and animate, humanized creatures that some people are may perceive as quite real.
Today, most scientists are inclined to believe that the secret of the origin of the myth should be sought in that ancient mythological consciousness based o the understanding and comprehension of the world, an understanding of nature, society and man. The myth arose from the need of ancient people in the realization of its surrounding natural and social elements, the essence of man.
The myths result in a metaphorical comparison of natural and cultural sites, humanization of the environment, including the animation of space fragments. Mythological thinking can be viewed as the characteristic of a distinct separation between subject and object, object and signs, things and words, which are named, have origin and essence, indifference to contradiction, etc.
Objects approached by secondary sensory qualities, contiguity in space and time, act as signs of other objects, etc. Thus, myth usually combines two aspects:
- Diachronic (the story of the past)
- Synchronic (explanation of the present or future).
The content of the myth claimed adopted in a given society value system, supported and sanctioned by certain norms of behavior.
Contrary to Egypt, Greece, Rome, Norse, in Asia, the most important cosmic forces were not elements, but male and female forces, which were supposed to be the principal forces in the world. Famous Chinese yin and yang are supposed to be the most common symbol in China. One of the most famous myths about the creation of the world was written in the II century B.C. According to it the world was only gloomy chaos, which gradually formed themselves in two principles, i.e. Yin (dark) and yang (light), which set eight main directions of cosmic space. After the establishment of the spirit of these directions Yang began to manage the heavens, while the spirit of Yin managed the earth.
Another distinctive feature of ancient Chinese mythology implies historical approach, i.e. euhemerism of mythical characters that are under the influence of the rationalistic Confucian philosophy very early began to be construed as actual figures of antiquity. The main characters were transformed into kings and emperors, and secondary characters such as dignitaries, officials, etc. The euhemerism of myths promoted by the characteristic of Chinese mythology characters anthropomorphization process.
Arts & Stories
The answer o the question will be viewed based on the Chinese culture as it is supposed to be one of the oldest. It originated several thousand years before our era and has since developed continuously up to the present in the same territory. Countless raiding nomads, brutal and bloody civil wars, alien conquest repeatedly ravaged and devastated the country. Fires burned more than once flourishing cities, light wooden structures collapsed to the ground, destroyed valuable scrolls of paintings, jealously kept in the ancient museums and private collections. However, the greatness of Chinese culture has appeared in that it continued to exist and resist all the shocks as a single robust array. None of the tribes and the conquerors could not resist the culture of China. All these tribes conquered country, lost their native language, their writing, entirely falling under the influence of China. Cities were restored on the same drawings and the same tradition, and as soon as it was time for a break, the country began to live again intensive economic and spiritual life.
The specifics of the history of Chinese culture is that its periods cannot be considered in isolation, without touching the preceding stages. In order to make the right conclusions, the researcher must inevitably look into the past, talking about times close to us all the time to refer to the distant past, or will not be enough to open the item itself existence.
The particularly fruitful in the field of fine art were so-called Warring States period (IV - III century BC.) and Han period (206g BC -. 220g BC..). These years were characterized by the creation of a unified Chinese state. The Han art at a high continuity of his style are noticeable dramatic changes that have gradually taken place since the older ages. Already in the IV century BC. return of the mysterious symbolism of ancient vessels and bronze objects in carved items made of stone and in other fields of art, new subjects and themes where fiction is intertwined with motifs of real life, where the monumental ancient bronze objects and patterns gave way to consummate grace and much more easily engraved images . Han time gave rich material for the study of myths, historical legends, customs and religious ideas that China's transition from slavery to feudalism period.
Period in the development of feudalism and the highest peak of all areas of Chinese culture were medieval VII - XIII century - the reign of the two states - Tan (618 -907) and Song (960 - 1279). It is that time approved the centuries the highest achievements of art - poetry and painting. Periods of Tang and Song were brilliant stages of culture flourished when numerous species, forms and genres of art. Painting this historic pores is the highest achievement of Chinese art. It reflects all the ideological world views with his admiration for the beauty of nature. Arts Way periods Tang and Song due to the different fates of the state in many ways as different. During the Tang Dynasty, a large role was played by the monumental sculpture and architecture, they differed common to the whole spirit of the era of clear harmony, classic beauty and calm grandeur forms. When Sunah, the country might have been undermined, architecture loses its harmonious monumental power. It becomes more refined and intimate character. Severe forms of clarity replaced by elongated proportions and graceful silhouette ease. Monumental sculpture as well is gradually losing its meaning. However, the art reached in this period of unprecedented upsurge.
Acute social struggle, fill the entire history of China XV - XVIII centuries, touched and artistic culture is born and develops new types and genres of fine art, breaking down the old ideals. For monumental sculpture finally loses its artistic value, buying decorative and applied nature in the garden and park ensembles. A huge role is played by applied arts associated with the development of crafts and trade. Poetry gives way to drama, short story and novel, engraving and People splint conquers the significant place in art.